Solar power generation is divided into solar thermal power generation and photovoltaic power generation. Generally speaking, solar power generation refers to solar photovoltaic power generation, referred to as "photoelectric". Photovoltaic power generation is a technology that directly converts light energy into electrical energy by using the photovoltaic effect at the semiconductor interface. The key component of this technology is the solar cell. After the solar cells are connected in series, they can be packaged and protected to form a large area of solar cell modules, and then combined with power controllers and other components to form a photovoltaic power generation device.
Theoretically, photovoltaic power generation technology can be used in any situation that requires power, from spacecraft to household power, from megawatt power stations to toys. Photovoltaic power is everywhere. The most basic components of solar photovoltaic power generation are solar cells (chips), including monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and thin film cells. Among them, single crystal and polycrystalline batteries are the most used, and amorphous batteries are used in some small systems and auxiliary power supplies for calculators. The efficiency of crystalline silicon battery made in China is about 10-13%, and that of similar products in the world is about 12-14%. A solar panel composed of one or more solar cells is called a photovoltaic module. Photovoltaic power generation products are mainly used in three aspects: first, to provide power for non electric field integration; Second, solar energy daily-use electronic products, such as various solar chargers, solar street lamps and solar lawn lamps; Third, grid connected power generation, which has been widely promoted and implemented in developed countries. By 2009, China's grid connected power generation has not been fully promoted. However, part of the power for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is provided by solar power and wind power.
It is predicted that solar photovoltaic power generation will occupy an important position in the world energy consumption in the 21st century. It will not only replace some conventional energy, but also become the main body of the world energy supply. It is estimated that by 2030, renewable energy will account for more than 30% of the total energy structure, and solar photovoltaic power generation will account for more than 10% of the world's total power supply; By 2040, renewable energy will account for more than 50% of the total energy consumption, and solar photovoltaic power generation will account for more than 20% of the total electricity; By the end of the 21st century, renewable energy will account for more than 80% of the energy structure, and solar power generation will account for more than 60%. These figures are enough to show the development prospect of the solar photovoltaic industry and its important strategic position in the energy field.
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